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How to Format a Linux Disk

Important Things

Backup: Formatting erases all data. Back up important files before proceeding.

File System: Choose the right file system for your requirements.

  • ext4: Common, robust and default for many Linux distributions.
  • XFS: Great for large files and high performance use cases.
  • Btrfs: Comes with advanced features like snapshots and copy on write.
  • FAT32: For max compatibility with other operating systems.

Methods

1. GUI Tools

Disks Utility (GNOME):

  • Search for “Disks” in your applications menu.
  • Select the disk you want to format.
  • Click the gear icon and select “Format Partition”.
  • Choose your file system, enter a volume name (optional) and click “Format”.

GParted: (If not installed, get it through your package manager)

  • Launch GParted.
  • Select your disk from the dropdown in the top right corner.
  • Right click on the partition you want to format and choose “Format to”.
  • Select the file system and click “Apply”.

2. Command Line (Terminal)

Find the Disk: Use lsblk or fdisk -l to list your disks and partitions. Note the correct device path (for example /dev/sdb1).

Unmount the Partition: Before formatting, unmount the partition.

  • sudo umount /dev/sdb1

Replace /dev/sdb1 with the actual device path for your targeted partition.

3. Format Using mkfs

To format as ext4:

  • sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1

Substitute .ext4 with .xfs, .btrfs, .vfat (for FAT32) for the file system you want.

Example: Formatting /dev/sdb1 as FAT32

  • sudo umount /dev/sdb1
  • sudo mkfs.vfat /dev/sdb1

Other Things

Root Privileges: Commands prefixed with sudo require administrative access.

Formatting Full Disks: To format an entire disk (creating new partitions), use tools like fdisk or cfdisk. Be extremely careful because you can easily wipe out all of your data.

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